Anthro Citation Style Guide                                             

Prof. Karen Nakamura             

     This is a very short paper showing how to properly cite and format your references for your paper. In general, I follow the Chicago Manual of Style (University of Chicago 1993) reference list format. That means, every time you cite a book such as A Journey into the Deaf World (Lane et al. 1996), you put the name of the authors and the year of the publication within ( ) parentheses.

     It is important that you use (Author Year) and not (Author, Year). If there are two authors to a book, like (Padden and Humphries 1988) then you just say "and", otherwise use just the first author and "et al." when you have three or more authors, such as the Lane citation above. Chapters out of an edited book are cited the same way, for example (Wiley1994: 143). Notice in this example I have the page number with a colon following the year. If you need to cite more than one author, use semi-colons (Padden and Humphries 1988: 125; Wiley 1994: 143).

     Even articles out of the popular press are cited the same way, for example (Brand 1988: 64). If the article is not signed, such as this article in a Gallaudet University newsletter, then use the name "Anonymous" for the citation (Anonymous 1982). If you go on to cite material,  such as the article talking about the "Selma of the Deaf (18)," and it's clear from context where you are citing from, just use the page number. For dictionary or encyclopaedia articles, you can use (Webster 2000: 2384) or (Encyclopaedia Brittanica 2000: 9938).

     When you are quoting someone, remember that the citations fall outside the " " marks and period.  Use a signal phrase – i.e, introduce the source of your quote. For example: Richard Senghas said, "Nicaraguan kids are a lot of fun to be around" (2000: 20). Be sure to always have page numbers when you are pulling direct quotations. Note that in this case, I didn't include "Senghas" in the () citation since it's clear from the context who the author is. You can also introduce books this way, for example Nora Groce's (1995) book, Everyone Here Spoke Sign Language.

A really famous person said a lot of famous things. See how I indented and also changed the font size to indicate that this is someone else talking? This is how you can bracket longer citations. It makes it easier to read. Be careful that you don't make any spelling mistakes when citing (Garcia 1994: 235).

Another thing is that when you're citing, if you need to "[c]hange the case (upper/lower case), then use square brackets" (Nakamura 2000). In the miscellaneous category, movie citations are just the same as anything else (Haines 1986). Finally, be sure to alphabetize your reference list.

Reference List


       1982   Veditz film collection. On the green: a weekly publication for Gallaudet staff and faculty, Nov. 8, 1, 2.

Brand, David

       1988   This is the Selma of the deaf: Gallaudet students demonstrate for a deaf college president. Time, March 21, 64.

Groce, Nora Ellen

       1985   Everyone here spoke sign language: hereditary deafness on Martha's Vineyard. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Haines, Randa

       1986   Children of a lesser god. Hollywood:Paramount Pictures.

Lane, Harlan, Robert Hoffmeister, and Ben Bahan

       1996   A journey into the Deaf-World. San Diego: DawnSign Press.

Padden, Carol and Tom Humphries

       1988   Deaf in America: voices from a culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Senghas, Richard J

       2000   New ways to be deaf in Nicaragua: individual and community development. In Many Ways to be Deaf: International Linguistic and Sociocultural Variation, ed. Leila F. Monaghan, Karen Nakamura, and Graham Turner. Hamburg: Springer-Verlag.

University of Chicago Press.

       1993   The Chicago manual of style. 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Wiley, Norbert

       1994   The politics of identity in American history. In Social theory and the politics of identity, ed. Craig Calhoun. 130-149., Oxford: Blackwell.